Earthquakes    Floods        LandSlides       Snow & Fires         Other Risks

II.A).     Flash Floods :  Accelerated runoff dam failure, break up of ice jam and Glacial Lake Outburst.

  II.B).     River Floods: Slow build up, usually seasonal in river systems.

  II.C).     Coastal Floods: Associated with tropical cyclones, Tsunami waves, Strong surges.

Factors affecting degree of danger
Depth of water, Velocity, Duration and Date of rise, Frequency of occurrences, Seasonality, Rock strata, and Vegetation cover. Sutlej is one of the major rivers systems of the country and the state. Satluj is an antecedent river having deep and narrow gorges.  The river Satluj enters from Tibet at Shiplika into Kinnaur and forms confluence with its tributary River Spiti at Khab Bridge. Sutlej is joined by many of its tributaries namely Parchhu Nalla, Spiti River, Tithang Nalla, Tinku Nalla, Bhagat Nalla, Shaiso Khad, Kanam Khad, Kirang Khad, Tidong Khad and Rispa Nalla in Pooh sub-division, Kashang Nalla, Pangi Nalla, Barang Nalla, Baspa river and its rivulets like Kharogla Nalla, Rupti Nalla, Shong Nalla, Brua Khad in Kalpa sub-division and Panvi Nalla, Runger Nalla, Yula Nalla, Rukcharang Nalla and

Figure 4: Flood Map of Kinnaur District

Bhaba Khad in Nichar sub-division. It leaves Kinnaur district and enters Shimla district at Chaura village cutting across the entire district and finally flows into the Arabian Sea. The Satluj and some of its tributaries are prone to floods due to Glacial Lake Outbursts (due to heavy snow melting or blockage of the exit), heavy rainfall or Cloud bursts.  As per the history of floods this river has caused havoc in the district more than once and cut off the district from rest of the country many a times. Despite all this, there appears to be total lack of appreciation of the risk vis a vis this hazard. The entire river course has been crowded with very costly infrastructure.

The muck being generated by the power projects is being dumped along the main river course. The Project Colonies such as the one constructed at Tapri which has historically faced many devastation is virtually on the river course. The repeat of 60 feet high floods in the year on the pattern of 2000 would cause huge devastation both to the power project, residential locations and road network.  The Army locations along the river course would also be susceptible to such event.

                   Despite the fact that this area is highly prone to floods there is hardly any effective and efficient early warning system in place with last mile community. The origin of past floods has been located at China and through information sharing and monitoring arrangement has been established after the 2005 floods but mode of alternating all the stakeholders has not been put in place.


Figure 5: Unscientific Dumping of Muck

along the natural course of river